audit guide for small nonprofit organizations

(b) A performance bond on the part of the contractor for 100 percent of the contract price. A “performance bond” is one executed in connection with a contract to secure fulfillment of all the contractor's requirements under such contract. (a) A bid guarantee from each bidder equivalent to five percent of the bid price. The “bid guarantee” must consist of a firm commitment such as a bid bond, certified check, or other negotiable instrument accompanying a bid as assurance that the bidder will, upon acceptance of the bid, execute such contractual documents as may be required within the time specified. The acquisition of supplies or services, the aggregate dollar amount of which does not exceed the micro-purchase threshold (See the definition of micro-purchase in § 200.1).

For example, a new Federal program with new or interim regulations may have higher risk than an established program with time-tested regulations. Also, significant changes in Federal programs, statutes, regulations, or the terms and conditions of Federal awards may increase risk. (i) A Federal program administered under multiple internal control structures may have higher risk. When assessing risk in a large single audit, the auditor must consider whether weaknesses are isolated in a single operating unit (e.g., one college campus) or pervasive throughout the entity. (5) The possible asserted effect to provide sufficient information to the auditee and Federal agency, or pass-through entity in the case of a subrecipient, to permit them to determine the cause and effect to facilitate prompt and proper corrective action.

Audit Requirement (Commercial Organizations)

Find out if any special situations occurred (salary increases, convention, supplemental financial support from parent body, office break-in and related insurance claims, etc.) during the audit period. Obtain and review your union’s most recent audit report and LM-2, LM-3 or LM-4 annual financial report. Invoice — A detailed list of goods purchased by a union or services rendered to a union with an account of all costs. Dues — A periodic payment to a union by members which establishes them as members in good standing. The amount is generally included in the bylaws and constitution and is approved by a secret ballot vote of the membership. Certificate of deposit — A certificate from a bank stating that a customer, such as a union, has a specified sum on deposit which will earn a specific rate of interest for a specific period of time.

Class of Federal awards means a group of Federal awards either awarded under a specific program or group of programs or to a specific type of non-Federal entity or group of non-Federal entities to which specific provisions or exceptions may apply. Acquisition cost means the cost of the asset including the cost to ready the asset for its intended use. Acquisition cost for law firm bookkeeping equipment, for example, means the net invoice price of the equipment, including the cost of any modifications, attachments, accessories, or auxiliary apparatus necessary to make it usable for the purpose for which it is acquired. Acquisition costs for software includes those development costs capitalized in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP).

Preparing for an Audit with Aldrich

Termination means the ending of a Federal award, in whole or in part at any time prior to the planned end of period of performance. Subaward means an award provided by a pass-through entity to a subrecipient for the subrecipient to carry out part of a Federal award received by the pass-through entity. It does not include payments to a contractor or payments to an individual that is a beneficiary of a Federal program. A subaward may be provided through any form of legal agreement, including an agreement that the pass-through entity considers a contract. Student Financial Aid (SFA) means Federal awards under those programs of general student assistance, such as those authorized by Title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended, (20 U.S.C. 1070–1099d), which are administered by the U.S. Department of Education, and similar programs provided by other Federal agencies.

Rates must be adjusted at least biennially, and must take into consideration over/under-applied costs of the previous period(s). (c) Costs of membership in any civic or community organization are allowable with prior approval by the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity. (c) Materials and supplies used for the performance of a Federal award may be charged as direct costs. In the specific case of computing devices, charging as direct costs is allowable for devices that are essential and allocable, but not solely dedicated, to the performance of a Federal award.

Charities & Nonprofits Topics

Both the direct costs and the indirect costs must exclude capital expenditures and unallowable costs. However, unallowable costs must be included in the direct costs if they represent activities to which indirect costs are properly allocable. If a dispute arises in the negotiation of a plan between the cognizant agency for indirect costs and the governmental unit, the dispute must be resolved in accordance with the appeals procedures of the cognizant agency for indirect costs. Each major local government is also required to submit a plan to its cognizant agency for indirect costs annually.

audit guide for small nonprofit organizations

(b) Special emoluments, fringe benefits, and salary allowances incurred to attract professional personnel that do not meet the test of reasonableness or do not conform with the established practices of the non-Federal entity, are unallowable. For costs to be allowable, the IHE must have incurred the interest costs after July 1, 1982, in connection with acquisitions of capital assets that occurred after that date. (1) The requirement to offset interest earned on borrowed funds against current allowable interest cost (paragraph (c)(5), above) also applies to earnings on debt service reserve funds. (4) The non-Federal entity limits claims for Federal reimbursement of interest costs to the least expensive alternative.

When the Federal awarding agency authorizes the approaches in paragraphs (e)(2) and (3) of this section, program income in excess of any amounts specified must also be deducted from expenditures. Under this procedure, the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity must advance cash payments to the non-Federal entity to cover its estimated disbursement needs for an initial period generally geared to the non-Federal entity's disbursing cycle. Thereafter, the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity must reimburse the non-Federal entity for its actual cash disbursements. Use of the working capital advance method of payment requires that the pass-through entity provide timely advance payments to any subrecipients in order to meet the subrecipient's actual cash disbursements. The working capital advance method of payment must not be used by the pass-through entity if the reason for using this method is the unwillingness or inability of the pass-through entity to provide timely advance payments to the subrecipient to meet the subrecipient's actual cash disbursements. If it is anticipated that the period of performance will include multiple budget periods, the Federal awarding agency must indicate that subsequent budget periods are subject to the availability of funds, program authority, satisfactory performance, and compliance with the terms and conditions of the Federal award.

The Federal awarding agency must however ensure that adequate funds are available to cover currency fluctuations in order to avoid a violation of the Anti-Deficiency Act. (1) Capital expenditures for general purpose equipment, buildings, and land are unallowable as direct charges, except with the prior written approval of the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity. (b) For rates covering a future fiscal year of the non-Federal entity, the unallowable costs will be removed from the indirect (F&A) cost pools and the rates appropriately adjusted. The non-Federal entity may concurrently receive Federal awards as a recipient, a subrecipient, and a contractor, depending on the substance of its agreements with Federal awarding agencies and pass-through entities. Therefore, a pass-through entity must make case-by-case determinations whether each agreement it makes for the disbursement of Federal program funds casts the party receiving the funds in the role of a subrecipient or a contractor.

Internal Audit

Verify that the records maintained by your union are sufficient to clarify or verify the information shown on your union’s LM-2, LM-3, or LM-4 annual financial reports. If not, advise the principal financial officers that these records must be maintained for at least 5 years after these reports are filed. Locate your union’s LM-2, LM-3, or LM-4 annual financial report for the latest completed fiscal year and confirm that it was filed on time (within 90 days after the end of your union’s fiscal year) with OLMS. If not, advise the principal financial officers to complete and submit it to OLMS as soon as possible. Locate all original receipts for at least two months and confirm that all non-dues checkoff income (interest, rent, refunds) cited on these records matches corresponding entries in the receipts journal.

audit guide for small nonprofit organizations

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